What does Affinity for Technology Interaction mean?

The 9-item affinity for technology interaction (ATI) scale is designed to assess a person’s tendency to actively engage in intensive technology interaction — or to avoid it. ATI can be seen as a core personal resource for users’ successful coping with technology.

ATI is a key facet of user personality and therefore essential when assessing user characteristics in research on technology interaction. Use cases include the identification of sample biases in usability tests or adapting interfaces or technology-related trainings to ATI values in the user group.

Do you have any questions regarding the scale? Just drop us a line at ati@imis.uni-luebeck.de. We are very interested to get in contact and look forward to answer your questions!


Users differ regarding their
Affinity for Technology Interaction

People differ in how much they like to interact with technology. On the one extreme, some people really like to explore technical systems and even love to deal with problems. On the other extreme, some people just dislike it.

This is not surprising, but affinity for technology interaction (ATI) has important consequences for general research models of user-technology interaction, user experience, technology acceptance, and practical development of technical systems.

Differences in ATI have Consequences for Research and Development

For example, if you want to understand why users differ in their successful adaptation to a new system, assessing ATI can provide insights and help in model and system optimization. Likewise, user evaluation can be skewed by participants who like to interact with technology and can thus easily overcome usability problems which would pose stumbling blocks for other users.

Thus, assessing ATI is as relevant as assessing age and gender if you want to characterize your user sample in technology interaction research. But how can you assess affinity for technology interaction?

The ATI-Scale

The 9-item ATI scale is a unidimensional, short and reliable scale for assessing affinity for technology interaction. It is grounded in the established psychological construct need for cognition and is supported by multiple studies with over 1500 participants. For more information on the scale and its construction, see Franke, Attig, & Wessel (2018; empirical validation) or Attig, Wessel, & Franke (2017; development, references below). A presentation of the scale at HFES Europe 2017 can also be watched below.



Download the scale for use in your project  Please contact us if you want to translate the scale into another language. We’re always happy to add another language here and have created an Excel sheet that should assist in the translation process.

Italian Version

Spanish Version

Romanian Version

Persian Version

French Version

Finnish Version

Portuguese Version

Short Scale Version

There is also a short version available (ATI-S), consisting of 4 items (subset of the full 9-item ATI scale). Use it only if you absolutely, positively have to reduce the number of items. In all other cases, the 9-item version should be used, as it has superior psychometric quality.

English Version

German Version

French Version

More on the construction of the short scale is available in this paper.
data set and the R scripts used for its construction are also available
If you have the full scale in another language, use items Items 1, 2, 6, and 8 of the full version (note that items 6 and 8 have to be reversed for analysis).

Use THe Scale

Downloading the Scale

You can download the scale in English (as .docx, .pdf), in German (as .docx, .pdf), or in Italian (as .docx, .pdf).

Conditions of Use

The scale is free to use. However, we appreciate it if you cite the scale as:

Franke, T., Attig, C., & Wessel, D. (2019). A Personal Resource for Technology Interaction: Development and Validation of the Affinity for Technology Interaction (ATI) Scale. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 35(6), 456-467, DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2018.1456150

and send us a short message. We are always happy to hear how it is used and whether it was useful.

Calculating Scale Means

When analyzing participants’ responses, code the answers to the items with 1 to 6, but reverse code the responses to items 3, 6 and 8 (see analysis information in the Word/PDF document of the scale). The user’s ATI score is the mean of the 9 ATI item values (6 original values and 3 reverse coded items).

Assessing Cronbach’s alpha is recommended prior to calculating the means.

Analysis and Interpretation

For analysis/interpretation, we strongly recommend using, e.g., correlations/regression analyses or including ATI as a covariate, and avoid creating groups (e.g., doing a split at 3.5 or a median split, followed e.g., by t-Tests). Reasons being:

  1. ATI was developed to cover the whole range of affinity for technology in a population, without floor or ceiling effects. It’s a continuous variable that does not lend itself to artificial grouping. There are no sudden changes which would indicate specific subgroups of affinity for technology interaction.
  2. You’d lose a lot of information if you split the sample, e.g., a person whose ATI score is slightly above/below the «magical» line would be treated the same as someone in the extremes.
  3. «Average» ATI varies between populations. Groups which are self-selected for their interest in technology (e.g., computer scientists) will have higher ATI values, so a person might be below average in the sample but above average in the population.

Get in Touch

We are very interested in continuing to evaluate and improve the scale. If you plan to use the scale, we would be very happy to learn more about your research topics. If you are looking for a localized version, we are also very happy to provide some support for translations (e.g., regarding the procedure, the translation itself would need to be done by your organization). You can reach us at ati@imis.uni-luebeck.de. Please also contact us if you have any questions.

Data for Reanalysis

If you are interested in reanalyzing the data, we have made the data from the MTurk study (reported in Franke, Attig, & Wessel, 2019) available for reanalysis.
The zipped file contains the data as .csv file and the Codebook via PDF.
The data was also analyzed by Lezhnina and Kismihók. See their the paper: Lezhnina, O., & Kismihók, G. (2020). A multi-method psychometric assessment of the affinity for technology interaction (ATI) scale. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 1, 100004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2020.100004
If you have any questions, please contact us.

Who we are

Prof. Dr. Thomas Franke

Thomas Franke is a professor of Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics at University of Lübeck. He received his PhD in 2014 from Chemnitz University of Technology. He is particularly interested in user diversity and a resource perspective on user-technology interaction.

Christiane Attig, M.Sc.

Christiane Attig is an engineering and cognitive psychologist at Chemnitz University of Technology, where she received her Master of Science in Psychology in 2016. Besides research focusing on user state detection in human-computer interaction, she is also particularly interested in user diversity and user interaction with activity trackers.

Dr. Daniel Wessel

Daniel Wessel is a researcher at the Institute for Multimedia and Interactive Systems at University of Lübeck. His research interests include mobile media, research methods and evaluation, and especially the interaction between psychology and computer technology.